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Diabetic eye in NJ

Diabetic eye in NJ ; Top 5 Ophthalmology Clinics in New Jersey

Overview : 

Diabetic eye in NJ is one of the most common complication of diabetes prevalent in New Jersey, in which high blood sugar levels damage the retina present on the back of the eye. 

What is Retina ?

Retina is actually a screen at which light rays fall and then gets converted into an electrical impulse which is perceived by the brain. When the retina is damaged it becomes unable to transmit light signals to the brain which causes difficulty in vision. If this condition is left undiagnosed and untreated it results in blindness.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) has grown attention in recent years due to its debilitating complications. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic microvascular complication of 

Diabetes Mellitus  is considered as the primary cause of diabetic eye in NJ. Early diagnosis of diabetic  complications along with targeted therapy options are critical in avoiding mortality associated with complications of diabetes.

Diabetic eye in NJ : 

According to a report, about 645,000 or 9% of adults in New Jersey have diagnosed diabetes and 2,395,000 or 34% of adults in New Jersey are suffering from prediabetes. Due to this great percentage of incidence of diabetes , its complications are commonly occuring like diabetic eye in NJ patients. 

Although diabetes can lead to many serious health complications but timely treatment and healthy lifestyle habits can prevent or delay complications like diabetic eye in NJ.

Top 5 Ophthalmology Clinics for diabetic eye in NJ : 

Here we have presented the top 5 clinics of ophthalmology situated in New Jersey. All of them have skillful doctors and related staff. The details are given below : 

You can book appointments in these clinics to get your treatment of diabetic eye in NJ.

Types of Diabetic Retinopathy : 

There are two types of diabetic retinopathy:

  • Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy :

 In this type which occurs at an early stage of this disease, the blood vessels swell and start to leak blood in the retina, which results in mild vision loss. This condition is less-severe and can be treated.

  • Proliferative diabetic retinopathy : 

When the disease progresses, it results in a proliferative type in which abnormal blood vessels grow in response to ischemia (loss of oxygen supply). These vessels are abnormal and they leak blood into the gel-like substance (vitreous) that is present in your eye. It produces more severe effects as it detaches the retina and causes complete loss of vision.

Symptoms of Diabetic Eye in NJ : 

In early stages, there are no signs of diabetic retinopathy. The symptoms start appearing when the condition gets worse.

Symptoms of diabetic eye may include:

  • Blurry vision
  • Double vision
  • Color blindness
  • Visualizing faded colors
  • Poor night vision (night blindness)
  • Small dark or blank spots in your field of vision
  • Difficulty in seeing far objects
  • Pain or pressure in eyes

Culprit of Diabetic retinopathy : 

According to a Research (held in 2023), miR-21 is an important non-coding-RNA (ncRNA) that has considerable roles in various pathological conditions including diabetic complications. miR-21 is one of the most elevated miRNAs in response to hyperglycemia and its higher concentrations in angiogenesis (formation of blood vessels) is a major culprit of a wide range of disorders including Diabetic eye . The main role of miR-21 in Diabetic eye pathophysiology is believed to be through regulating angiogenesis in the retina. 

Diagnostic marker of Diabetic Retinopathy :

Timely diagnosis is important in diabetic retinopathy as it may help in preventing visual impairment or blindness. So, identifying specific biomarkers to track the evolution of vascular endothelial proliferation is necessary for  prevention and timely therapeutic intervention. 

  1. MiRNAs : In people suffering from diabetic eye in nj , MiRNAs are secreted into extracellular body fluids and can serve as potential diagnostic or therapeutic biomarkers of diabetic eye .It has been proven that miRNA-21 is associated with the inflammation. Overexpression of miR-21 has been found to play a key role in pathophysiology of diabetic eye.

2) Hemoglobin A1c is another systemic prognostic biomarker that confirms the progression of Diabetic retinopathy.

How does diabetes affect the eyes ?

The etiology of diabetic complications is probably multifactorial, and is related to the quality of glycemic control. Several general theories have emerged, each based on the premise that either hyperglycemia or some related metabolic abnormalities are the primary events which trigger tissue damage and result in the development of diabetic complications. 

Polyol Pathway involvement :

The polyol pathway is one of the possible biochemical mechanisms by which hyperglycemia could impair the structure and function of the cells which are affected by diabetic complications.

It is said that the pericytes (cells of capillaries ) loss in diabetic retinopathy involves an apoptotic (death) process, the polyol pathway hyperactivity plays an important role in inducing this apoptosis in pericytes by high glucose. 

What basically is the polyol pathway ? 

It is actually a pathway in which glucose is converted into sorbitol by the action of an enzyme called aldose-reductase. This sorbitol accumulates in the cells and causes hyperosmolarity in cells which leads to apoptosis of the cells. So medicines containing aldose reductase inhibitors can possibly prevent this mechanism from happening.

Vitamin B12 and Diabetic Retinopathy : 

According to a Research , low serum vitamin B12 levels lead to increased Hcy levels which reduces retinal blood flow and reduces central retinal artery diameter, leading to ischemic retinal vascular injury. Low serum vitamin B12 levels also increase the release of inflammatory cytokines, destroy the retinal blood barrier, and lead to retinal cell apoptosis, thus accelerating the progression of Diabetic Retinopathy. 

Therefore, vitamin B12  play an important role in the pathological mechanism of Diabetic Retinopathy. Low serum vitamin B12 levels are associated with a variety of metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alongwith neurotransmitter and fatty acid synthesis defects.

 Previous research has linked low serum vitamin B12 levels to poor glycemic control and diabetic complications in people with diabetes.

Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis :

An eye doctor (ophthalmologist) can diagnose diabetic eye in NJ during a simple diabetes eye exam which includes following : 

  • Visual acuity : Acuity tells about how clearly one can see.
  • Tonometry : Measure Intraocular pressure to check glaucoma.
  • Eye muscle function test
  • Peripheral vision test : Peripheral vision is seeing from the periphery (sides) of your eyes.
  • Pupil response test : This tests the accommodation reflex of eye which tells us how pupil respond to light

Then the doctor will perform these techniques to check any abnormal blood vessels, bleeding in your eye, or swelling of retina :  

  1. Optical Coherence Tomography : In this, a machine scans the retina and provides detailed pictures of its thickness. It helps the doctor to find and measure any swelling in your retina. 
  2. Fluorescein angiography : In Fluorescein angiography, a yellow dye called fluorescein is injected into a vein (most probably in your arm). The dye travels through your blood vessels and reaches the retina. A special camera takes images  of the retina as the dye travels throughout its blood vessels. It shows if any blood vessels are blocked or leaking fluid. It also tells if any abnormal blood vessels are growing in the retina. OCT angiography is a newer technique and does not need dye to look at the blood vessels.

By performing these diabetes eye exam , an ophthalmologist can diagnose your diabetic retinopathy.

How to reduce the risk of diabetic retinopathy?

If you are suffering from diabetes, you can lower your risk of diabetic retinopathy by:

  • Avoiding cigarette smoking
  • Keeping your blood sugar within normal range
  • Exercising regularly
  • Having annual eye exams
  • Controlling your blood pressure within a healthy range.
  • Taking the prescribed medications as said
  • Keeping your eyes wet

By following these preventive measures, you can reduce the complication of diabetic eye in NJ .

Treatment : 

At present there are few treatment measures available to prevent diabetic retinopathy beyond regulating hyperglycaemia , preventing dyslipidemia , controlling hypertension and cessation of tobacco smoking . These include following : 

  • Medications : 

Injection of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGFs) or corticosteroids helps in slowing down the progression of disease.

  • Laser Photocoagulation : 

 For people with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), laser photocoagulation is a main therapy, even though it is an inherently destructive procedure.

  • Vitrectomy : 

In vitrectomy, the ophthalmologist makes a small incision in the eye through which he repairs the blood vessels and removes scar tissue.


If you are suffering from diabetes and also having the symptoms of diabetic eye, then you should consult your doctor for treatment of your diabetic eye in NJ as early as possible. Because with timely treatment, you can prevent vision loss and delay progression of diabetic retinopathy.

FAQs : 

Q : What does diabetes do to eyes?

A : In diabetes, high blood sugar levels damage the blood vessels of retina which results in loss of vision

Q : How do you fix diabetic eye problems?

A : You can fix diabetic eye problems by controlling blood sugar level, cholesterol level,blood pressure, and avoiding tobacco. On the other hand, medications (anti-VEGFs, corticosteroids, aldose reductase inhibitors) can be used to fix diabetic eye in NJ.

Q : Can lowering blood sugar improve vision?

Yes, lowering blood sugar levels can slow down the progression of diabetic retinopathy which ultimately improves vision.

Q : What foods are good for diabetic retinopathy?

A : Foods rich in Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Zinc are good and healthy for diabetic retinopathy.

Bibliography Sources : 

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